Sobremesa Chronicles

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zapatazos-el-nacionalYesterday, Venezuela lost one of its greatest artists. I dare say Pedro León Zapata was THE greatest artist of the last era of our history.

Why is this controversial? Zapata was a cartoonist. Doesn’t sound like high art, right?

Large crises are usually fodder for artists. Picasso’s greatest painting was inspired by the carnage of Guernica. Steinbeck would not have been Steinbeck without the Great Depression. And the Paris spring undoubtedly inspired Truffaut and Malle to new heights.

The current travails our country is undergoing have not yet led to an artistic high point. We all enjoy Federico Vegas and Suniaga, but these are not universal authors – at least not yet. And while we may all admire a few movie directors, architects, musicians or painters, they are all undiscovered gems, niche players. The artistic genesis spurred by the revolution’s antics remains underwhelming.

But pretty much everyone in Venezuela knew who Zapata was.

For decades, Zapata has been speaking truth to power through his political cartoons, religiously published in El Nacional. He is the father of Edo, Rayma, Weil, and countless others who make the absurd Venezuelan reality palpable. Chavismo, however, inspired him to new heights.Zapatazo-guinda-de-un-cabello

It takes real talent to convey the nonsense that passes for daily life in our country with a simple drawing and a clever phrase. We should know – sometimes it takes us hundreds of words and countless hours to convey the same thing, and we usually fail.

But Zapata rarely failed. Through his distinctively Venezuelan wit, Zapata made you think – no offense, but sometimes it was the only thing in El Nacional worth reading.

Many people were mourning the passing of the great master. But his death at the ripe old age of 85 is a testament to a life lived to the fullest. He spurred our national conscience through that rare Venezuelan trait – hard work. His job here was done.

Take a bow, maestro. No other artist comes close to having an impact as profound as you.

1 COMMENT

  1. When I first came to Venezuela, I started to pick up El Nacional just to see these strange little drawings, that became less enigmatic and more enjoyable with each day lived in Caracas. These were little wonders that could only grow in Venezuela.

    • I am surprised at two things:

      1) Your obsession with the blogger (were you in love with him back in school?)

      2) Your ability to make an ass of yourself.

      At least show some dignity, it’s embarrassing to read you.

      • Alejandro,

        The prospect that you become desensitized to my words was at first worrisome.

        On one hand you could acquire the ability to respond in good faith, but on the other you could loose interest as there is no suspenseful love story to follow through.

        I took a smoke break.

        Stare intently at computer screen.

        I knew what to do.

        I knew I had to call the norwegian homosexual for advise on how to better my campaign.

  2. Loved Orlando Urdaneta as an actor and even met him once as he and his then wife Chelo lived in the penthouse of my sisters-in-law building en el Este.

  3. Bypassing another obvious diversionary tactic from low-IQ dspur … I fully agree, Juan. It takes real talent to convey the nonsense that passes for daily life in our country with a simple drawing and a clever phrase. And yet, not so simple drawings, for these would convey more than one interpretation, without ever trying to be cute. Don’t get me wrong. I LOVE Weil and EDO and Rayma, but Zapata’s artistry is in a more sophisticated sphere, less one-dimensional in its political thought. Take the 2nd cartoon noted above. The first thing that crossed my mind, on seeing the elongated fingers of one hand, was that they were those of Fidel Castro, pressing a hair to explain his disappointment and ….

    Thanks for writing about the Master and his well-deserved laurels.

    • Nagel presents a dichotomy[0] between moving out of the country and overthrowing the Venezuelan government:

      “The hysteresis model makes sense … if you assume that the risk of going to jail for running your business is zero. Plug that into the model, and it will probably tell you that you should do one of two things: a) bail, sell, shut down, change into dollars at whatever price, and leave; or b) conspire to overthrow the government … for real.”

      [0] http://caracaschronicles.com/2015/02/06/hysteresis-or-survival/

      I want to know if he relates to Urdaneta in other qualities.

      We should celebrate all reactionary artists or journalists (and their barely discernible differences?).

  4. You mean the same Zapata who praised Fidel Castro at age 59, that is, 40 years after the beginning of one of the worst dictatorships mankind has ever witnessed? Did you ever read that pamphlet endorsed by 1000 so called “Venezuelan intellectuals, Zapata included?” No me jodas, Nagel. At age 30, it was very clear to me who Fidel Castro was, if not before. Did you ever read that “declaration of love?” In spite of all those killed by the communist regime? Signed by such useless people as the ones who claim to be “luchadores sociales,” whatever the fuck that means? This set mentality is the reason why the america south of the Rio Grande is so and will be so fucked for the foreseeable future.

    • Right, well, if the full measure of every latin american writer and artist is whether they ever said a good word about Fidel, the bookshelves and museos will be empty and we’ll have to take back a Nobel prize as well. Are you so angry that you can’t see that his work mocks everything that we understand Fidel to be?

      • So, that in itself would make it morally acceptable to praise a murderous dictatorship? I do not deny Garcia Marquez genius as a writer, but as a human being, he left a lot to be desired…

          • Mighty pretentious of you to speak as if you have never been wrong. You can disagree with Zapata’s youthful politics and even with him as a person without dismissing his artistry and his influence within that sphere, surely.

          • Youthful politics? First, learn how to write. Did you mean political ideas in his youth. Second, learn how to read: he was cheering Castro at almost age 60! Third, I did not criticize his work, though to me it was quite unremarkable. Again, learn how to read. And, fourth, why don’t you ask any victim of the Cuban dictatorship what he or she thinks about this “declaration of love” by these so called intellectuals? Hint: read Carlos Alberto Montaner blog, that is, after you learn how to read. Don’t worry his explanation is very diplomatic. I would not have been.

          • As the greatest artist/joker/friend of assassins in my mother tongue put it: “Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?”

        • Meaning you can’t reproduce. Or are too lazy to contribute. While you’re at it, you may want to re-read Juan’s post. It’s predominantly filled with the measure of Zapata’s artistry.

          Here are two anecdotes that might help clean your foggy lenses, both from http://eltiempo.com.ve/tiempo-libre/suceso/fallece-a-los-85-anos-el-caricaturista-pedro-leon-zapata/170968 . They are repeated elsewhere in the Vzlan media:

          “La postura política de Pedro León siempre fue crítica hacia los Gobiernos, al Gobierno de turno”, dijo el músico [Miguel Delgado Estévez] que señaló que el caricaturista cuestionó a los diferentes partidos en el poder, “no se identificó ni con Acción Democrática, ni Copei, ni con nada, ni con lo que está pasando hoy en día”, dijo.

          Anécdota de El Nacional
          Hay una anécdota de sus comienzos en El Nacional que merece ser contada. Quien la rememoró es Ramón J. Velásquez: “La representación de los ricos que Zapata acuñó presentándolos a través de un individuo ventrudo, vestido con chaleco y adornado con un brillante en la mano, despertó el resquemor de cierto directivo de El Nacional, quien se dirigió a mí para sugerirme la conveniencia de interrumpir cuando antes la publicación de sus caricaturas. En esos días me encontré en una recepción con el embajador Berbaum, representante diplomático de Estados Unidos en Caracas, quien me llamó aparte para conversar. Resultó que el hombre era un entusiasta coleccionista de caricaturas políticas y estaba interesado en adquirir algunos originales de Zapata, a quien consideraba un genio indiscutible. Le sugerí entonces que se dirigiera al citado directivo y le solicitara algunos cartones. A los días se presentó el embajador norteamericano en el periódico y obtuvo las piezas que quería, después de ponderar la singular calidad de nuestro caricaturista. Hasta ahí le llegó a Zapata la tacha de comunista. No hay duda de que es el mejor editorialista venezolano de la democracia”.

          • It turns out that the mighty lazy here is you. It took me less than 30 seconds to find it. Again, learn to read. I was not criticizing his work, though there isn’t any remarkable about it.

            Manifiesto de Bienvenida a Fidel Castro

            El Nacional y 2001, 1º y 3 de febrero de 1989

            Nosotros, intelectuales y artistas venezolanos al saludar su visita a nuestro país, queremos expresarle públicamente nuestro respeto hacia lo que usted, como conductor fundamental de la Revolución Cubana, ha logrado en favor de la dignidad de su pueblo y, en consecuencia, de toda América Latina.
            En esta hora dramática del Continente, sólo la ceguera ideológica puede negar el lugar que ocupa el proceso que usted representa en la historia de la liberación de nuestros pueblos. Hace treinta años vino usted a Venezuela, inmediatamente después de una victoria ejemplar sobre la tiranía, la corrupción y el vasallaje. Entonces fue recibido por nuestro pueblo como sólo se agasaja a un héroe que encarna y simboliza el ideal colectivo. Hoy, desde el seno de ese mismo pueblo, afirmamos que Fidel Castro, en medio de los terribles avatares que ha enfrentado la transformación social por él liderizada y de los nuevos desafíos que implica su propio avance colectivo, continúa siendo una entrañable referencia en lo hondo de nuestra esperanza, la de construir una América Latina justa independiente y solidaria.

            Los 911 firmantes

            1. Guillermo Abdala, escultor
            2. Carmen Absueta, escritora
            3. Ángel Eduardo Acevedo, escritor
            4. Josefina Acevedo, cineasta
            5. Elizabeth Acosta, investigadora Inst. de Investigaciones Econ. y Sociales UCV
            6. Enriqueta Acosta, prof. UCV
            7. Maruja Acosta, prof. Sociología UCV
            8. Oscar Acosta, director teatral
            9. Vladimir Acosta, coordinador de la Facultad de Economía UCV
            10. Lola de Acuña, prof. LUZ
            11. Emilio Agra, artista gráfico
            12. Gilberto Agüero Gómez, dramaturgo
            13. Sadia Aguilar, historiadora
            14. Carlos Aguirre, titiritero
            15. Jacqueline Aguirre, periodista
            16. Marcial Aguirre, artista plástico
            17. Yohana Ahumada, actriz
            18. Alberto Alcalá, periodista
            19. Gilberto Alcalá, periodista
            20. Gustavo Alcalá, escritor
            21. Luis Alcalá, prof. UDO
            22. Aureliano Alfonzo Torres, cineasta
            23. Ángel Alvarado, escritor
            24. Hernán Alvarado, artista plástico
            25. Iris Alvarado, artista plástica
            26. Ramón Alvarado, prof. Economía UCV
            27. Gisela Alvaray, directora de la Escuela de Educación UCV
            28. Adolfo Álvarez, prof. Educación UCV
            29. Eduardo Álvarez, escritor
            30. Humberto Álvarez, periodista
            31. Javier Álvarez, cineasta
            32. María del Mar Álvarez, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            33. Maritza Álvarez, coordinadora Inst. de Investigaciones Económicas UCV
            34. Sergio Alves Moreira, escritor
            35. Ana Amundaray, fotógrafa
            36. Raiza Andrade, prof. Sociología ULA
            37. Luis A. Angulo, escritor
            38. Laura Antillano, escritora
            39. Sergio Antillano G., crítico de arte
            40. Alfredo Anzola, cineasta
            41. Carmen Aranguren, prof. ULA
            42. Elizabeth Araujo, periodista
            43. Edmundo Aray, escritor
            44. Ignacio Luis Arcaya, ex canciller
            45. Armando Arce, cineasta
            46. Ernesto Arends, prof. ULA
            47. Romelia Arias, vicepresidenta del Ateneo de Caracas
            48. Carmen Amelia Arma, investigadora ININCO
            49. Alfredo Armas Alfonzo, escritor
            50. Lali Armengol, dramaturga
            51. Ruperto Arocha, prof. Filosofía UCV
            52. César Arteaga, prof. Derecho UC
            53. Jorge Arteaga, pintor
            54. Pilar Arteaga de Hernández, promotora de espectáculos
            55. Verónica Artigas, actriz
            56. Solange Arvelo, artista plástica
            57. Alberto Arvelo Mendoza, cineasta
            58. Alberto Arvelo Ramos, escritor
            59. Consuelo Ascanio, prof. Administración UCV
            60. Francisco Ascanio, farmacéutico
            61. Haydée Ascanio, cineasta
            62. María Elena Ascanio, promotora cultural
            63. Rodolfo Ascanio, prof. Medicina UCV
            64. Michelle Ascencio, directora de la Escuela de Letras UCV
            65. Omar Astorga, prof. Filosofía UCV
            66. Rosamaría Atencio, cineasta
            67. Alidha Ávila, cineasta
            68. Ligia Ávila, escritora
            69. María Magdalena Ávila, promotora cultural
            70. Sonia Azparren, economista
            71. Carlos Azpúrua, cineasta
            72. Guadalupe Babia, investigadora UCV
            73. Aquiles Báez, músico
            74. Juan Carlos Báez, historiador
            75. Carmen Elena Balbás Rivas, prof. Comunicación Social UCAB
            76. Jorge Ball, fotógrafo
            77. Ricardo Ball, director de la Escuela de Comunicación Social LUZ
            78. Rubén Ballesteros, vicerrector académico UC
            79. José Balza, escritor
            80. Jorge L. Barboza, escritor
            81. Alberto Barrera, escritor
            82. Olegario Barrera, cineasta
            83. Juan Barreto, periodista
            84. Luz Marina Barreto, prof. Filosofía UCV
            85. Oswaldo Barreto, escritor
            86. Pedro Barreto, escultor
            87. Rafael Ángel Barreto, presidente IVCA
            88. Sergio Barreto, investigador CENAM-UCV
            89. Abdala Barrios, escritora
            90. Fabricio Barrios, comunicador social
            91. Gladys de Barrios, prof. UPEL
            92. José Barroeta, escritor
            93. Luisa Barroso, periodista
            94. Cristóbal Bastidas, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            95. Oscar Bastidas, prof. Administración UCV
            96. Oscar Battaglini, historiador
            97. Carlos Becerra, prof. Arquitectura UCV
            98. Francisco Bechara, decano de la Facultad de Odontología UCV
            99. Ramón Belisario, pintor
            100. Giovanna Bellarino, fotógrafa
            101. Freddy Bello, prof. UC
            102. Mauro Bello, pintor
            103. Milena Bello, prof. UC
            104. José Gregorio Bello Porras, escritor
            105. Dolly Benavides, periodista
            106. José Benedetto, arquitecto
            107. Edgar Benítez, psiquiatra
            108. Luna Benítez, periodista
            109. Manuel Bermúdez, escritor
            110. Winston Bermúdez, economista
            111. Luis Bermúdez Romero, escritor
            112. Pedro Beroes, escritor
            113. José Berroterán, músico de “Un Sólo Pueblo”
            114. Marisela Berti, actriz
            115. Edme Betancourt de García, vicerrectora administrativa UC
            116. Luisa Bethencourt, prof. CENDES
            117. Teresa Biancelli, prof. Historia UCLA
            118. Luis Bigott, coordinador de la Facultad de Humanidades UCV
            119. Marcelino Bisbal, director de la Escuela de Com. Social UCV
            120. Antonio Blasco, prof. UC
            121. Miguel Bolívar, prof. Sociología UCV
            122. Modesta Bor, compositora
            123. Jorge Borges, actor
            124. José Borges, actor
            125. Eudis Borra, prof. Medicina UCV
            126. Velia Bosch, escritora
            127. Carlos Botto, prof. Medicina UCV
            128. María Teresa Boulton, fotógrafa
            129. Gabriel Bracho, pintor
            130. Helena de Bracho, periodista
            131. Sandra Bracho, fotógrafa
            132. América Bracho E., periodista
            133. Martiniano Bracho Sierra, escritor
            134. Madilia Braga Díaz, prof. de Ballet
            135. José Luis Briceño, prof. Economía UCV
            136. Mirna Briceño, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            137. Argimiro Briceño León, promotor cultural
            138. Roberto Briceño León, prof. Sociología UCV
            139. Luis Enrique Brito, fotógrafo
            140. Luis Britto García, escritor
            141. Jacques Broquel, bailarín
            142. Ana Brumlick, arquitecta
            143. Luisa Bujanda, psicóloga
            144. J. J. Burgos, escritor
            145. Manuel Caballero, escritor
            146. Antonio Cabezas, artista gráfico
            147. Erubí Cabrera, productora teatral
            148. Jesús María Cadenas, miembro del Consejo Universitario UCV
            149. José Luis Cadenas, fotógrafo
            150. Rosita Caldera, periodista
            151. María Calderón, músico
            152. Sari Calogne, directora de la Escuela de Educación UCV
            153. Agustín Calzadilla, ex presidente de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos
            154. Juan Calzadilla, escritor
            155. Pedro Calzadilla Álvarez, historiador
            156. Juan Antonio Calzadilla Arreaza, escritor
            157. Luisa Camacho, investigadora social
            158. Yolanda Camacho de Rodríguez, Grupo “Las Moño Suelto”
            159. Alberto Camarriel, prof. Economía de la UCV
            160. Milagros Camejo Octavio, Grupo “Las Moño Suelto”
            161. Carmen Teresa Camino, pintora
            162. Antonio Campos, director teatral
            163. Beatriz Campos, prof. de la UDO
            164. Miguel Ángel Campos, escritor
            165. José Campos Biscardi, pintor
            166. José Canache, escritor
            167. Aureliano Canchica, prof. de Educación UCV
            168. Malula Capello, escritora
            169. Graciela Capriles, psicóloga
            170. Simonne Capriles, economista
            171. Alfredo Caraballo, prof. Sociología UCV
            172. Arturo Cardozo, historiador
            173. Lubio Cardozo, escritor
            174. Freddy Carquez, prof. Medicina UCV
            175. Gonzalo Carrero, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            176. Julio Carrillo, escritor
            177. Margot Carrillo Pimentel, prof. ULA
            178. Elisa Carvalho, prof. Humanidades UCV
            179. Elisa Casado, prof. Educación UCV
            180. Ramón Casanova, prof. de CENDES
            181. Victoria Casanovas, prof. Economía UCV
            182. Nora Castañeda, coordinadora administrativa de Economía UCV
            183. Antonio Castejón, decano de la Fac. de Ciencias Experimentales LUZ
            184. Marianela Castés, prof. de Medicina UCV
            185. Adicea Castillo, prof. Economía UCV
            186. Alfrides Castillo, prof. Sociología UCV
            187. Carlos Castillo, cineasta
            188. Evelia Castillo, actriz
            189. Freddy Castillo, escritor
            190. Jorge Castillo, arquitecto
            191. María Teresa Castillo, presidenta del Ateneo de Caracas
            192. Ocarina Castillo, directora de cultura UCV
            193. Omar Castillo, periodista
            194. Zoila Castillo, cineasta
            195. Gregorio Antonio Castro, director de la Escuela de Sociología UCV
            196. Guillermo Castro, investigador ININCO
            197. Claudio Cedeño, caricaturista
            198. Gema de Cedeño, pintora
            199. Ismael Cejas, prof. ULA
            200. Audio Cepeda, fotógrafo
            201. Alfredo Chacón, escritor
            202. Ana Cointa Chacón, periodista
            203. Germania Chacón, promotora cultural
            204. Roberto Chacón, prof. ULA
            205. Román Chamorro, cineasta
            206. Rubén Chamorro, cineasta
            207. Oscar Chaparro, cineasta
            208. Irwing Chapellín, artista plástico
            209. Haydée Chavero, prof. Arte UCV
            210. Carmelo Chillida, ex vicerrector UCV
            211. José Luis Chiquito León, secretario UC
            212. César Chirinos, escritor
            213. Diego Nicolás Chirinos, periodista
            214. Edmundo Chirinos, ex rector UCV
            215. Orlando Chirinos, escritor
            216. Frank Cisneros, dibujante
            217. Vial Cisneros, arquitecto
            218. Omar Luis Colmenares, periodista
            219. Héctor Colmenares Díaz, escritor
            220. Hely Colombani, escritor
            221. Aída Cometta Manzoni, escritora
            222. Alberto Comte, escritor
            223. Yorlando Conde, director de teatro T-POS
            224. Amanda Contreras, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            225. Elsy Contreras, tallista
            226. Fernando Contreras, prof. ULA
            227. Gustavo Contreras, prof. UC
            228. Diómedes Cordero, escritor
            229. Rafael Cordero, prof. Psicología UCV
            230. Jesús Cordero Giusti, promotor cultural
            231. Armando Córdoba, prof. Economía UCV
            232. Víctor Córdova, prof. Economía UCV
            233. Máximo Corrales, promotor cultural
            234. Marbella Correa, prof. UFM
            235. Belkis Cortez, prof. ULA
            236. Laura Cracco, escritora
            237. Virgilio Crespo, Danzaluz
            238. Jacinto Cruz, actor
            239. Teresa Cuberos, prof. UCV
            240. Alfonso Cuesta y Cuesta, escritor
            241. Luis Cuevas, pintor
            242. Víctor Cuica, músico
            243. Miguel Curiel, cineasta
            244. Nicolás Curiel, director teatral
            245. Antonio E. Dagnino, actor
            246. Maruja Dagnino, cineasta
            247. Luis F. Damiani, prof. Sociología UCV
            248. Miguel Elías Dao, cronista de Puerto Cabello
            249. Haleis Dávila, prof. Sociología UCV
            250. Rui De Carvalho, psiquiatra
            251. Pablo De La Barra, cineasta
            252. Venancio De La Cruz, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            253. Mario Del Moral, músico
            254. Paúl Del Río, pintor
            255. Cruz Elena Delgado, promotora cultural
            256. Kotepa Delgado, escritor
            257. Fernando Delgado Espinoza, médico
            258. Igor Delgado Senior, escritor
            259. María Cristina Di Prisco, prof. Medicina UCV
            260. Rafael Di Prisco, escritor
            261. Luisa E. Díaz, promotora cultural
            262. María Lucía Díaz, prof. Comunicación Social UCV
            263. Mercedes Díaz, actriz
            264. Raúl Díaz, pintor
            265. Trino Díaz, vicerrector administrativo UCV
            266. Oscar Díaz Punceles, escritor
            267. Gustavo Díaz Solís, escritor
            268. Franca Donda, fotógrafa
            269. Josune Dorronsoro, crítico de arte
            270. Pedro Duno, escritor
            271. Paulino Durand, actor
            272. Aracelys Echeverría, arquitecto
            273. Elías Eljuri, decano de la Facultad de Economía UCV
            274. Perán Erminy, crítico de arte
            275. Ralph Erminy, arquitecto
            276. Julio Escalona, prof. Psicología UCV
            277. Elisa Escámez, actriz
            278. Elba Escobar, actriz
            279. Kiddio España, director del Teatro Estable de Oriente
            280. Homero Español, prof. Economía UCV
            281. María Eugenia Esparragoza, cineasta
            282. Gioconda Espinel, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            283. Manuel Espinoza, artista plástico
            284. Elena Estaba, directora de Planeamiento UCV
            285. Malila Estaba, pintora
            286. Rosa Estaba, prof. Geografía UCV
            287. Rosa Estacio, prof. Economía UCV
            288. Arnaldo Esté, prof. Filosofía UCV
            289. Gaudi Esté, escultora
            290. Edna Estéves, coordinadora del vicerrectorado administrativo
            291. Raúl Estevez, prof. Física ULA
            292. Víctor Fajardo Cortez, prof. CENDES
            293. Humberto Farfán, coordinador de Trabajo Social UCV
            294. David Fermín, prof. ULA
            295. Alexis Fernández, escritor
            296. Beatriz Fernández, prof. CENDES
            297. Federico Fernández, fotógrafo
            298. Gladys Fernández, directora de la Escuela de Administración UCV
            299. José Fernández, prof. Psicología UCV
            300. José Humberto Fernández, titiritero
            301. Liliana Fernández, prof. UCV
            302. Hugo Fernández Oviol, escritor
            303. Marisol Ferrari, bailarina
            304. Yoston Ferrigni, prof. Sociología UCV
            305. Lady Fonseca, prof. de Trabajo Social UCV
            306. Nereida Fonseca, promotora cultural
            307. Roberto Fontana, fotógrafo
            308. Celso Fortoul, prof. Ingeniería UCV
            309. Lydda Franco Farías, escritora
            310. Luis Fuenmayor, rector UCV
            311. Elizabeth Fuentes, periodista
            312. Rafael Fuentes, promotor cultural
            313. Maite Galán, promotora cultural
            314. Alberto Galíndez, actor
            315. Francisco Gallardo, director teatral
            316. Eduardo Gallegos Mancera, escritor
            317. Orlando Gámez, músico
            318. Raquel Gamus, prof. UCV
            319. Alix García, secretaria del Consejo Universitario UCV
            320. Jesús García, antropólogo
            321. Luis García, fotógrafo
            322. Luis R. García, periodista
            323. Luis Rafael García, periodista
            324. Marcela García, prof. UCV
            325. María García, prof. LUZ
            326. Víctor García, promotor cultural
            327. Yajaira García, periodista
            328. Zacarías García, artista plástico
            329. Humberto García Arocha, ex ministro de Educación
            330. Gonzalo García Bustillos, ex ministro de la Secretaría de la Presidencia
            331. José Francisco García Marcano, prof. UC
            332. Manuel García Pulido, coordinador de la Facultad de Humanidades UCV
            333. Emiro García Rosas, periodista
            334. José Luis Garrido, artista gráfico
            335. Judith Gasparini, actriz
            336. Paolo Gasparini, fotógrafo
            337. Esther Gautier, presidenta de CENATEV
            338. Francisco Gavidia, prof. ULA
            339. Gertrudis Gavidia, prof. ULA
            340. Inmaculada Gavidia, cineasta
            341. Jesús Gazo, s.j., presbítero
            342. Elena Gil, cantante
            343. Frida Gil, músico de Un Solo Pueblo
            344. Ricardo Gil, historiador
            345. Carlos Giménez, director teatral
            346. Lulú Jiménez Valdivia, investigadora CELARG
            347. Jorge Giordani, prof. CENDES
            348. Nagliegli Godoy, coordinadora Galería “Viva México”
            349. Xitlalli Godoy, actriz
            350. Jesús Golindano, periodista
            351. Valmore Gómez, cineasta
            352. Ileana Gómez C., traductora
            353. Asdrúbal González, historiador
            354. Beatriz González, historiadora
            355. Carlos A. González, prof. Medicina UCV
            356. Cristina González, periodista
            357. Eberto González, prof. UFM
            358. Franklin González, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            359. Gonzalo González, politólogo
            360. Noel González, junta directiva de FEVEC
            361. Oswaldo González, prof. UC
            362. Raúl González, fotógrafo
            363. Reddy González, artista plástico
            364. Roberto González, artista plástico
            365. Manuel González Abreu, prof. Economía UCV
            366. Néstor González Acuña, prof. Administración UCV
            367. Alí González P., miembro del Consejo Universitario UCV
            368. Beatriz González Stephan, prof. UCV
            369. Jesús Alberto González Vegas, prof. Medicina UCV
            370. Marisela Gonzalo, semióloga
            371. Elsa Gramcko, pintora
            372. Ida Gramcko, escritora
            373. Omar Granados, prof. ULA
            374. Edgardo Greco, promotor cultural
            375. Aníbal Grunn, actor
            376. Jesús Enrique Guédez, cineasta
            377. María Guédez, ceramista
            378. Cleides Guerra, directora Escuela de Idiomas UCV
            379. Cristóbal Guerra, periodista
            380. Elena Guerra, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            381. Ibrahím Guerra, director teatral
            382. Carmen Priscila Guevara, prof. UDO
            383. Emil Guevara, prof. UCV
            384. Arturo Gutiérrez, escritor
            385. Jesús Rafael Gutiérrez, prof. Medicina UCV
            386. José Albano Gutiérrez Pacheco, prof. UC
            387. Eduardo Guzmán, arquitecto
            388. Manuel Guzmán, director Revista Letras UCV
            389. Mario Handler, cineasta
            390. Maryam Hanson, prof. UCV
            391. Ana Cristina Henríquez, cineasta
            392. Alba Rosa Hernández, prof. USB
            393. Amelia Hernández, periodista
            394. Ana Rosa Hernández, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            395. Augusto Hernández, fotógrafo
            396. Emely Hernández, prof. Arte UCV
            397. Enrique Hernández, arquitecto
            398. Gustavo Hernández, promotor cultural
            399. Josefina de Hernández, prof. CENDES
            400. Lesbia Hernández, diseñadora gráfica
            401. Loyola Hernández, internacionalista
            402. Régulo Hernández, prof. Economía UCV
            403. Earle Herrera, escritor
            404. José Rafael Herrera, prof. Filosofía UCV
            405. Luis Alfredo Herrera, prof. Veterinaria UCV
            406. María Helena Herrera, investigadora CENDES
            407. Francisco Herrera Luque, escritor
            408. Benjamín Hierro, pintor
            409. Daniel Honaggn, bailarín
            410. Solveig Hoogesteijn, cineasta
            411. Magali Huggins, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            412. Lilian Hung, prof. CENDES
            413. Isabel Hungría, actriz
            414. Mirtila Illas Gil, abogada
            415. Rafael Iribarren, arquitecto
            416. Eva Ivanyi, directora artística
            417. Rodolfo Izaguirre, crítico cinematográfico
            418. Ariel Jiménez, artista plástico
            419. Edgar Jiménez, promotor cultural
            420. Elisa Jiménez, prof. Psicología UCV
            421. Alberto Jordán, periodista
            422. Josefina Jordán, escritora
            423. Josefina Juliac de Palacios, vicepresidenta del Ateneo de Caracas
            424. Manón Kubler, cineasta
            425. Olga L. de García Arocha, prof. Medicina UCV
            426. Diana Labrador, actriz
            427. Luis Lander, prof. Economía UCV
            428. Edgardo Lander L., prof. Sociología UCV
            429. Américo Lares, prof. UDO
            430. Ronald Lares, prof. UPEL, Maturín
            431. Morella de Larriva, prof. UNELLEZ
            432. Ramón Larriva Contreras, promotor cultural
            433. Vladimir Lazo, prof. Economía UCV
            434. Edgar Leal, prof. Ciencias UCV
            435. Vielma Lehmann, investigadora ININCO
            436. Hernán Lejter, director teatral
            437. Andrés A. León, director de teatro
            438. Enrique León, director de teatro
            439. Ernesto León, pintor
            440. Jesús Alberto León, escritor
            441. Ramón León, arquitecto
            442. Adeliz León Guevara, escritor
            443. León Levy, escritor
            444. Boris Lima, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            445. Tiburcio Linares, prof. UCV
            446. Rita Liprandi, prof. CENDES
            447. Antonia de Lisio, investigadora CENAM-UCV
            448. Marcelo Lizarraga, diseñador gráfico
            449. Antonio Llerandi, cineasta
            450. Belén Lobo, bailarina
            451. Emiro Lobo, pintor
            452. Enrique Lobo, arquitecto
            453. Alí López, prof. ULA
            454. Carmen López, periodista
            455. Daniel López, actor
            456. Edilio López, promotor cultural
            457. Hercilia López, bailarina
            458. Lupe López, bibliotecóloga
            459. María Victoria López, prof. UPB
            460. Ibrahím López García, prof. UFM
            461. Luis López Grillo, decano de la Facultad de Medicina UCV
            462. Ramón Losada Aldana, escritor
            463. María del Mar de Lovera, prof. Economía UCV
            464. María Elena Lovera, prof. Economía UCV
            465. Tamara Lozada, prof. Comunicación Social LUZ
            466. Henry Mac Carthy, actor
            467. Arlette Machado, prof. Letras UCV
            468. Gertrudis de Machado, periodista
            469. Luis E. Machado, promotor cultural
            470. Gilberto Madrid, abogado
            471. Ángel Madriz, escritor
            472. Héctor Malavé Mata, prof. Economía UCV
            473. Ricardo Maldonado, decano Facultad de Ciencias Económicas UC
            474. Cósimo Mandrilo, escritor
            475. Carmen Mannarino, escritora
            476. Manuel Manrique, abogado
            477. Carmen Isabel Maracará, escritora
            478. Gabriel Marcos, escultor
            479. Jesús Marín, prof. ULA
            480. Hugo Mariño, artista plástico
            481. Carlos Márquez, actor
            482. Esperanza Márquez, cantante
            483. Yilbert Márquez, pintor
            484. Augusto Márquez Brandt, escritor
            485. Alexis Márquez Rodríguez, escritor
            486. Cinesio Márquez Sosa, prof. Historia UCLA
            487. Juan Carlos Márquez Villa, pintor
            488. Ambretta Marrosu, crítico cinematográfico
            489. Susana Martín, promotora cultural
            490. Agustín Martínez, director de la Escuela de Filosofía UCV
            491. José Luis Martínez, prof. ULA
            492. Pedro J. Martínez, prof. Estudios Políticos UCV
            493. Salvador Martínez, pintor
            494. Ulises Martínez, historiador
            495. Mahfud Massis, escritor
            496. Aquilino José Mata, periodista
            497. Humberto Mata, escritor
            498. Manuel Matute, psiquiatra
            499. David Maury, psicoanalista
            500. Reinaldo Maza, prof. UPEL, Maturín
            501. Domingo F. Maza Zavala, economista
            502. Luisa Medina, prof. Administración UCV
            503. Ramón Daniel Medina, escritor
            504. Fernando Medina Ferrada, escritor
            505. Edna Medina Patrick, directora de la Escuela de Letras LUZ
            506. Arístides Medina Rubio, director de la Escuela de Historia UCV
            507. Pedro Esteban Mejía, prof. de Economía UCV
            508. Trino Meleán, psiquiatra
            509. Asdrúbal Meléndez, actor
            510. Ramón Melinkoff, prof. de Economía UCV
            511. Freddy J. Melo, escritor
            512. Absalón Méndez, prof. Economía UCV
            513. Ana Irene Méndez, periodista
            514. Consuelo Méndez, pintora
            515. Humberto Mendoza, abogado
            516. Ricardo Mendoza, profesor
            517. Silvia Mendoza, actriz
            518. Gladys Meneses, pintora
            519. Elys Mercado, rector UC
            520. Marco Tulio Mérida, historiador
            521. Giovanna Mérola, crítico cinematográfico
            522. Omar Mesones, productor de cine
            523. Diego Meza Torres, actor
            524. Carlos Mezones, promotor cultural
            525. Gustavo Michelena, guionista
            526. Mieres, economista
            527. Rigel Milian, promotora cultural
            528. Carlos Miranda, actor
            529. Abdel Mohamed, historiador
            530. Moisés Moleiro, escritor
            531. Federico Moleiro Camejo, escritor
            532. Adelina Molina, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            533. Alfonso Molina, periodista
            534. Félix Molina, fotógrafo
            535. Lenin Molina, prof. Comunicación Social UCV
            536. Manuel Isidro Molina, periodista
            537. Ricardo Molina Martí, prof. de Medicina UCV
            538. Eva Mondolfi, actriz
            539. Tulio Monsalve, prof. Psicología UCV
            540. Juan José Monsant, internacionalista
            541. Esteban Emilio Monsonyi, dir del doctorado en Ciencias Sociales UCV
            542. Jorge Monsonyi, prof. Antropología UCV
            543. Consuelo Montalvo, escritora
            544. Luis Montenegro, promotor cultural
            545. Álvaro Montero, escritor
            546. Antonio Montilla, vicepres. Con. Desarrollo Cient. y Humanístico UCV
            547. Gabriel Montilla, prof. ULA
            548. J. J. Montilla, presidente de Desarrollo Científico UCV
            549. Carmen Elena Morales, prof. ULA
            550. Ileana Morales, escritora
            551. Pedro Morales, cineasta
            552. Rafael Morales, prof. ULA
            553. Adolfo Moreno, prof. ULA
            554. Héctor Moreno, actor
            555. José Moreno Colmenares, prof. Economía UCV
            556. Ángel Moros, Administración y Contaduría UCV
            557. Carlos Mujica, escritor
            558. Héctor Mujica, escritor
            559. Ildemaro Mujica, actor
            560. Lohengri Mujica, titiritero
            561. Yolanda de Mujica, escultora
            562. Gastón Murat, actor
            563. Donald Myerston, cineasta
            564. Álvaro Naranjo, investigador de cine
            565. Guillermo Natera, prof. ULA
            566. Luis Navarrete Orta, prof. Letras UCV
            567. Tania Navarro, prof. Odontología UCV
            568. Eudes Navas Soto, escritor
            569. Aníbal Nazoa, escritor
            570. Claudia Nazoa, cineasta
            571. Laura Nazoa, crítico de danza
            572. Leonardo Nazoa, prof. CENDES
            573. Juan Negrete, prof. UCV
            574. Michael New, cineasta
            575. Carlos Noguera, escritor
            576. Simón Noriega, escritor
            577. Ada Nucetti, actriz
            578. Jorge Nunes, escritor
            579. Miguel Ángel Núñez, prof. UCV
            580. Tito Núñez, escritor
            581. J. R. Núñez Tenorio, escritor
            582. Carlos Ochoa, escritor
            583. Juvencio Ochoa, médico
            584. Nelly Ochoa, ceramista
            585. Verónica Oddo, actriz
            586. Enna Olivar, escritora
            587. Ligia Olivieri, pintora
            588. Gabriela Omerz, investigadora ILDIS
            589. José Napoleón Oropeza, escritor
            590. Carlos Ortega, periodista
            591. Joaquín Ortega, prof. UCV
            592. Frank Ortiz, escritor
            593. Jaime Ortiz, director de la Cinemateca Arlequín
            594. Aníbal Ortiz Pozo, caricaturista
            595. Nelson Osorio, prof. de Letras UCV
            596. William Osuna, escritor
            597. Yolanda Osuna, escritora
            598. Alejandro Otero, artista plástico
            599. Mariana Otero, lic. en Letras
            600. Ana Teresa Ovalles, presidenta del Ateneo de Barquisimeto
            601. Caupolicán Ovalles, presidente de la Asoc. de Escritores de Venezuela
            602. Omar Ovalles, prof. UCV
            603. Tibisay Ovalles, promotora cultural
            604. Edilberto Pacheco, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            605. Abilio Padrón, pintor
            606. Juan Páez Ávila, escritor
            607. Jesús Páez Puerta, cantautor
            608. Ángel Palacios, junta directiva de FEVEC
            609. Antonia Palacios, escritora
            610. Inocente Palacios, escritor
            611. Lucila Palacios, escritora
            612. Elio Palencia, dramaturgo
            613. Ramón Palomares, escritor
            614. Luis Pardi, actor
            615. Gianfranco Parisi, prof. ULA
            616. Francisco Parra, promotor cultural
            617. Orlando Pastor Díaz, folklorista
            618. Carlos Paván, prof. Filosofía UCV
            619. Antonio José Pavón, pintor
            620. Yanira de Paz, prof. letras LUZ
            621. Carlos Pecheneda, cineasta
            622. Edilio Peña, dramaturgo
            623. Pablo Peñaranda, prof. Psicología UCV
            624. Gustavo Pereira, escritor
            625. Juvencio Pereira, escritor
            626. Mirna Pereira, pintora
            627. Iván Pereira Cellis, cineasta
            628. Eddy Rafael Pérez, escritor
            629. Manuel Pérez, pintor
            630. Mary Carmen Pérez, pintora
            631. Mario Pérez, librero
            632. Milagros Pérez, periodista
            633. Ramón Elías Pérez, escritor
            634. Régulo Pérez, pintor
            635. Ernesto Pérez Baptista, prof. ULA
            636. Marelys Pérez Marcano, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            637. Ramón Pérez Piña, actor
            638. Cecilio Pérez Tovar, periodista
            639. Cruz Pernía, artesano
            640. Blas Perezo Naveda, escritor
            641. Horacio Peterson, director teatral
            642. Edgar Petit, pintor
            643. Félix N. Pifano, crítico de arte
            644. Sandra Pinardi, lic. en Letras
            645. Elías Pino Iturrieta, decano de la Facultad de Humanidades UCV
            646. Iris Pinto, promotora cultural
            647. Nallery Pinto, historiadora
            648. Roger Pinzón, cineasta
            649. Rafael Pizani, ex rector UCV
            650. Marianela Ponce, escritora
            651. José Ángel Porte-Acero, prof. Psicología UCV
            652. Carlos Portillo, investigador social
            653. Dilcia Potenza, jefe del área de Literatura de la UPB
            654. Aída de Prado, educadora
            655. Manuel Prado, medico
            656. Nelson Prato, prof. CENDES
            657. Adrián J. Prays, prof. Filosofía
            658. Ibrahím Prieto, junta directiva de FEVEC
            659. Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa, educador
            660. Samuel Prince, cantante
            661. Carlos E. Puche, pintor
            662. Edgar Queipo, pintor
            663. Florentino Querales, músico de “Un Sólo Pueblo”
            664. Ismael Querales, músico de “Un Sólo Pueblo”
            665. Jesús Querales, músico de “Un Sólo Pueblo”
            666. Manuel Quijada, ex ministro de Fomento
            667. Alberto Quintero, promotor de espectáculos
            668. Alfonso Quintero, abogado
            669. Ednodio Quintero, escritor
            670. Inés Quintero, investigadora del Instituto de Historia UCV
            671. Pedro Julio Quintero, ceramista
            672. Valentina Quintero, periodista
            673. Víctor Quintero, arquitecto
            674. José QuinteroWeir, escritor
            675. Livio Quiroz, cineasta
            676. Víctor Rago, director de la Escuela de Antropología UCV
            677. Vilma Ramia, promotora cultural
            678. Gilberto Ramírez, artista plástico
            679. Rafael Ramírez Camilo, prof. UCV
            680. Alexis Ramos, secretario UCV
            681. María Elena Ramos, investigadora de arte
            682. Nelson Ramos, pintor
            683. Francisco Ramosoteldo, artista gráfico
            684. Domingo Alberto Rangel, escritor
            685. Julieta Ravard, psicoanalista
            686. Carlos Rebolledo, cineasta
            687. Guillermo Rebolledo, dir. del Instituto de Investigaciones Econ. UCV
            688. Diana Reches, ecologista
            689. Ángela Rengifo, educadora
            690. Rafael Rengifo M., prof. CENDES
            691. José Rodolfo Rico, prof. UCV
            692. Irlanda Rincón, investigadora CENAM-UCV
            693. Pedro Rincón Gutiérrez, ex rector LUZ
            694. Gladys Rincón Palo, prof. UNIMET
            695. Jorge Rivadaneira, escritor
            696. Aura Rivas, actriz
            697. Humberto Rivas, titiritero
            698. Ivonne Rivas, lic. en Letras
            699. Rómulo Rivas, actor
            700. Celalba Rivera, escritora
            701. Dulce María Rivero, grupo “Las Moño Suelto”
            702. Emilcen Rivero, escritor
            703. Nelson Rivero, actor
            704. Víctor Ángel Rivero, prof. Economía UCV
            705. Pedro Robles, escritor
            706. Eduardo Robles Piquer (RAS), crítico de arte
            707. Mariano Rocha, abogado
            708. Alberto Rodríguez, escritor
            709. Alberto Rodríguez, prof. ULA
            710. Alí Rodríguez, ensayista
            711. Antonieta Rodríguez, “Luto Activo”
            712. Beatriz Rodríguez, prof. de Psicología UCV
            713. Carlos César Rodríguez, escritor
            714. Consuelo Rodríguez de Ascanio, diseñadora
            715. Dalia Rodríguez, psicóloga
            716. Fernando Rodríguez, prof. Filosofía UCV
            717. Imperio Rodríguez, periodista
            718. José Rodríguez, fotógrafo
            719. Juan Rodríguez, caricaturista
            720. Juan Gregorio Rodríguez, prof. ULA
            721. Luis Cipriano Rodríguez, prof. Historia UCV
            722. Luisa Rodríguez, historiadora
            723. Manuel Alfredo Rodríguez, escritor
            724. Marta Yadira Rodríguez, periodista
            725. Nelson Rodríguez, periodista
            726. Orlando Rodríguez, crítico teatral
            727. Rosángela Rodríguez, prof. Filosofía Pedagógico de Barquisimeto
            728. Manuel Rodríguez Campos, director Biblioteca UCV
            729. Irene Rodríguez Gallad, prof. Historia UCV
            730. Alfredo Roffé, crítico cinematográfico
            731. Violeta Roffé, escritora
            732. Alexis Rojas, junta directiva de FEVEC
            733. Carlos Germán Rojas, fotógrafo
            734. Emilia Rojas, actriz
            735. José de la Cruz Rojas, prof. ULA
            736. Reinaldo Rojas, historiador
            737. Armando Rojas Guardia, escritor
            738. Violeta Rojo, crítico cinematográfico
            739. Lukó de Rokha, pintora
            740. Denzil Romero, escritor
            741. Luis Romero, prof. Filosofía UCV
            742. Jesús A. Rondón, prof. ULA
            743. Luis Emilio Rondón Bravo, músico
            744. Pavel Rondón, prof. Economía UCV
            745. Winston Rosalles, actor
            746. Helia de Rosario, prof. CENDES
            747. Rafael Rosel, escritor
            748. Milagros Rosell, promotora cultural
            749. Bernardo Rotundo, promotor cultural
            750. Cerina Rotundo, actriz
            751. Emiro Rotundo, prof. Economía UCV
            752. Alfredo Rugeles, compositor y director de orquesta
            753. Bernabé Ruiz, arquitecto
            754. Nidia Ruiz, prof. Sociología UCV
            755. Leopoldo Ruiz Paolini, prof. UC
            756. Roberto Ruiz T., vicerrector académico UCV
            757. Domingo A. Ruiz V., prof. CENDES
            758. Margara Russotto, escritora
            759. Keyla Saab, prof. Educación UCV
            760. Carmiña Sadner Montilla, prof. Educación UCV
            761. Inés de Sáez, prof. Educación UCV
            762. Simón Sáez Mérida, prof. Sociología UCV
            763. Elizabeth Safar, investigadora ININCO
            764. Luis B. Salas P., prof. UCV
            765. Adolfo Salazar Quijada, prof. Administración UCV
            766. Elsa Salazar, arquitecto
            767. Jesús Salazar, escritor
            768. Trina Salazar, prof. ULA
            769. Johnny Salazar R., escritor
            770. Helena Salcedo, periodista
            771. Marcelo Salcedo, promotor cultural
            772. Ernestina Salcedo Pizani, escritora
            773. Oscar Sambrano Urdaneta, director de la Casa de Bello
            774. Ana María San Juan, investigadora de Sociología UCV
            775. Belén San Juan, educadora
            776. Antolín Sánchez, fotógrafo
            777. Eneida Sánchez, promotora cultural
            778. Lourdes Sánchez, ceramista
            779. Pedro Sánchez, promotor cultural
            780. Carlos Sánchez D. dramaturgo
            781. Mamela Sánchez Urdaneta, directora de Publicaciones UCV
            782. Sonia Sanoja, bailarina
            783. Jesús Sanoja Hernández, escritor
            784. Denis Santacruz, prof. Educación UCV
            785. Ramón Santaella, prof. Economía UCV
            786. Duilia Santana, cineasta
            787. Rodolfo Santana, dramaturgo
            788. Aída Santana Nazoa, prof. UCV
            789. Andrés Santeliz, director de la Escuela de Economía UCV
            790. Desirée Santos A., periodista
            791. Xavier Sarabia, director teatral
            792. Helena Sassone, crítico de arte
            793. Helena Scannone, investigadora de arte
            794. Elizabeth Schon, escritora
            795. Yolanda Segnini, historiadora
            796. Teresa Selma, actriz
            797. Jesús Serra, escritor
            798. Vladimir Sersa, fotógrafo
            799. Sergio Sierra, documentalista
            800. Alfredo Silva Estrada, escritor
            801. Héctor Silva Michelena, prof. Economía UCV
            802. José Silva Salguero, periodista
            803. Freddy Siso, cineasta
            804. Milagro Socorro, periodista
            805. Mónica Socorro, artista plástico
            806. Francisco Solórzano, periodista
            807. Heinz Rudolph Sonntag, prof. CENDES
            808. Antonieta Sosa, artista plástica
            809. Miguel Octavio Sosa, director de FUNTACA
            810. Arturo Sosa, s. j., Centro Gumilla
            811. Jesús Sotillo, periodista
            812. Carmen Alida Soto, prof. Bibliotecología UCV
            813. Carmen Alida Soto, prof. UCV
            814. Tarik Souki, cineasta
            815. María Clenticia Stelling, prof. UCAB
            816. Abilio Suárez, prof. UDO
            817. Bernardo Suárez, arquitecto
            818. Martín Szinetar, escritor
            819. Néstor Tablante y Garrido, bibliógrafo
            820. Tulio Tagliaferro, director de cultura LUZ
            821. José León Tapia, escritor
            822. Iraida Tapias, actriz
            823. María Josefina Tejera, investigadora literaria UCV
            824. Benjamín Terán, cantautor
            825. Ana Rita Tiberi, actriz
            826. Cecilia Todd, cantante
            827. Roberto Todd, promotor cultural
            828. Tecla Tofano, escritora
            829. Jesús Torrealba, prof. UCV
            830. Ramón Torrealba, investigador de la comunicación
            831. Alberto Torres, músico
            832. Alexis Torres, prof. ULA
            833. Freddy Torres, dramaturgo
            834. Fredzia Torres, prof. Psicología UCV
            835. Ildemaro Torres, escritor
            836. Lilia Torres de Parisca, prof. UCV
            837. Amneris Tovar, prof. UCV
            838. Marianela Tovar, lic. en Letras
            839. Fernando Travieso, arquitecto
            840. Oswaldo Travieso, prof. UCV
            841. Antonio Trujillo, escritor
            842. Manuel Trujillo, escritor
            843. Ugo Ulive, director teatral
            844. Isabel Urbaneja, cineasta
            845. Iván Urbina Ortiz, prof. Administración UCV
            846. Carmen Luisa Urbina, prof. UFM
            847. Segundino Urbina, prof. UFM
            848. Adriana Urdaneta, bailarina
            849. Alberto Urdaneta, director CENDES
            850. Belkys Urdaneta, periodista
            851. Claudia Urdaneta, promotora cultural
            852. Josefina Urdaneta, escritora
            853. Luis Urdaneta, artista plástico
            854. Luz Urdaneta, bailarina
            855. Nora Uribe, prof. Comunicación Social UCAB
            856. Robin Urquhary, educadora
            857. Betania Uzcátegui, pintora
            858. Juan Vicente Vadell, prof. Derecho UC
            859. Manuel Vadell, editor
            860. María de Vadell, editora
            861. Argenis Valbuena, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            862. Judith Valencia, prof. Economía UCV
            863. Mildred Valera M., prof. Economía UCV
            864. Haydée Valles, prof. UCV
            865. Chela Vargas, prof. Historia UCV
            866. Edmundo Vargas, pintor
            867. Vilma Vargas, prof. Letras UCV
            868. Alejandro Vásquez, prof. Comunicación Social LUZ
            869. Orlando Vásquez, artista plástico
            870. Enrique Vásquez Fermín, prof. Educación UCV
            871. Berta Vega, escritora
            872. Lucila Velásquez, escritora
            873. Orlando Venturini, prof. UCV
            874. Ballardo Vera, escritor
            875. Helena Vera, escritora
            876. Nilda Vera, prof. ULA
            877. Omar Verde, decano de la Facultad de Veterinaria UCV
            878. Oswaldo Verenzuela, grabador
            879. Elvira Veroes, prof. Humanidades UCV
            880. Fabiola Vethencourt, prof. UCV
            881. José Luis Vethencourt, psiquiatra
            882. Lolita Vethencourt, prof. Administración UCV
            883. Ángel Vilanova, escritor
            884. Mercedes Villa de Márquez, psicóloga UCV
            885. Luis Villafaña, licenciado en Filosofía
            886. Alcides Villalba, prof. UCV
            887. Federico Villalba, escritor
            888. Johnny Villalba, escritor
            889. Federico Villanueva, arquitecto
            890. Freddy Villarroel, artista plástico
            891. Edwin Villasmil, pintor
            892. Margarita Villegas, artista plástico
            893. Mario Villegas, periodista
            894. Silvio Villegas, prof. ULA
            895. Alfredo Vitoria, vicepresidente del Ateneo de Barquisimeto
            896. Frank Viloria, prof. UCV
            897. Oscar Viloria, prof. UCV
            898. Ludmila Vinogradoff, periodista
            899. Pável Vizcaya, actor
            900. Carlos Viso, prof. UCV
            901. Carlos Viso Carpintero, historiador
            902. Carlos Viso Fajardo, prof. Educación UCV
            903. Fruto Vivas, arquitecto
            904. Germán Rivas, prof. Trabajo Social UCV
            905. Pedro Juan Vives Suriá, presbítero
            906. Gladys Volcán, prof. Economía UCV
            907. Carlos Walter, prof. CENDES
            908. Andreína Womutt, bailarina
            909. Damely Yeguez, directora de Trabajo social UCV
            910. Eduardo Zambrano Colmenares, escritor
            911. Pedro León Zapata, artista plástico.

            REMEMBER MACHURUCUTO? I HAVEN’T…

          • So, he always criticized Venezuelan governments, but praised the Cuban one in grandiose terms. I challenge you to find me any remark made by him ever against the Cuban government and Fidel Castro.

          • Hmm, on the one hand, a lifetime of speaking truth to power in creative, innovative ways. On the other hand, a massive letter in support of a foreign leader, signed 25 years ago. Those two things aren’t anywhere near equivalent.

          • Good. According to what this cartoon says, the remark had to be made about fifty years after the the “triumph” of the revolution. That is, in 2010 when the author was at the tender age of 80 years. A bit late, wouldn’t you say. By the way, I was talking about something more substantial than a cartoon, like, perhaps, an interview where he denounced the murders, atrocities, pervasive hardships, poverty, lack of freedoms and opportunities, lack of free speech, and slavery to an utterly failed system that Cubans had to endure for more than half a decade. That would have been a more appropriate atonement for his “Benevolent Superficial Stupidity.”

          • Sorry pal. Your challenge was to find “ANY remark made by him EVER against the Cuban government and Fidel Castro” (emphasis mine).

            And I gave you such a remark (a Zapatazo). Now it turns out you didn’t want just ANY remark, but a whole interview on the subject or some sort of full on mea-culpa, and it also turns out that EVER wasn’t good enough, because you wanted and old remark (that is really an interview on the subject or an extensive mea-culpa).

            It’s not my fault your challenge wasn’t up to your standard. Next time, phrase challenges more carefully.

          • The challenge was up to my standard. A Zapatazo just doesn’t cut it for the serious matter at hand, that is, the criminal regime that has made the life of millions of Cubans so miserable for more than 50 years. Please, do grow up. You don’t really need to contradict me. Just acknowledge the suffering of millions for many decades. I promise, it will be sobering.

          • I do agree that the Castro regime is a cancer in Latinamerica, and I also lament the reluctance of “the left” to condemn that dictatorial regime.

            That said, for some reason I can’t fathom, you hold a greater value on a signature Zapata put on a letter, that probably someone else wrote, than on a work he made himself.

          • J,

            You are so superior!
            What the fuck do you do here? I am sure a lot of people will remember you favourably once you die.

      • Here it is. The Intertunnels come through again. Manifiesto de Bienvenida a Fidel Castro
        blockquote><Nosotros, intelectuales y artistas venezolanos al saludar su visita a nuestro país, queremos expresarle públicamente nuestro respeto hacia lo que usted, como conductor fundamental de la Revolución Cubana, ha logrado en favor de la dignidad de su pueblo y, en consecuencia, de toda América Latina.
        En esta hora dramática del Continente, sólo la ceguera ideológica puede negar el lugar que ocupa el proceso que usted representa en la historia de la liberación de nuestros pueblos. Hace treinta años vino usted a Venezuela, inmediatamente después de una victoria ejemplar sobre la tiranía, la corrupción y el vasallaje. Entonces fue recibido por nuestro pueblo como sólo se agasaja a un héroe que encarna y simboliza el ideal colectivo. Hoy, desde el seno de ese mismo pueblo, afirmamos que Fidel Castro, en medio de los terribles avatares que ha enfrentado la transformación social por él liderizada y de los nuevos desafíos que implica su propio avance colectivo, continúa siendo una entrañable referencia en lo hondo de nuestra esperanza, la de construir una América Latina justa independiente y solidaria.
        Translation:
        We, Venezuelan intellectuals and artists, greeting you upon your visit to our country, want to publicly express our respect for what you, as the fundamental force behind the Cuban Revolution, have been able to achieve for the dignity of its people and, consequently, for all Latin America.
        In this dramatic time for the continent, only ideological blindness can deny the place that you represent in the history of the liberation of our people. Thirty years ago you came to Venezuela immediately after an exemplary victory over tyranny, corruption and vassalage. Then you were received by our people as only one would lionize a hero who embodies and symbolizes the collective ideal. Today, from the bosom of the same people we affirm that Fidel Castro, amid the terrible vicissitudes faced by the social transformation by his leadership and new challenges that its own collective advance implies, remains an endearing reference in the depths of our hope to build an independent Latin America of justice and solidarity.
        He had plenty of company. He is the final signer, number 911. Coincidentally, 911 is a number made famous by reference to what happened on the 9th of September 2001- and also 1973. I wonder what he felt in later years about his signing this welcome to Fidel. One would hope he felt a measure of regret.

        I am reminded of the 1930s in the US, when it wasn’t difficult to get an “intellectual” to sign a petition in favor of Stalin.Following is an excerpt from The Great Deception

        In March, 1937, eighty-eight writers, artists, teachers, and clergymen, many of them famous and successful, issued an “Open Letter to American Liberals,” defending the “good name” of the Soviet government and denouncing Professor John Dewey’s investigation of Joseph Stalin’s charges against Leon Trotsky.

        In April, 1938, a committee of five self-styled “liberals and progressives” circulated a statement—soon to be signed by 123 well-known artists, writers, actors, and musicians—expressing staunch support for Stalin’s bloody purge trials.

        In August, 1939, just nine days before the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Pact, some four hundred leading American intellectuals of the arts, sciences, and professions published a long “Open Letter” branding as fascists and reactionaries all those who expressed the “fantastic falsehood that the U.S.S.R. and totalitarian states are fundamentally alike” in their suppression of cultural freedom, civil liberties, and free trade-union activity. It is unnecessary, even if space were available, to print the names of all these signers, and to reopen old sores. The problem is not one of individuals, for we are dealing with a widespread phenomenon.

        I have seen a list of some of the signers- some rather prominent people.Which reminds me of that Orwell quote: “One has to belong to the intelligentsia to believe things like that: no ordinary man could be such a fool.”

        • Thanks Boludo,

          I wasn’t here then and wasn’t aware of it. It does remind one of the parallels to the American flirtation with Marxism in the early part of the last century. Let us hope that the backlash against doesn’t include a LatAm version of McCarthyism.

        • Thank you, BT. According to one author and journalist, Carlos Alberto Montañer, the artists were suffering from BSS: Benevolent Superficial Sympathy. So, too, did Carlos Andrés Pérez, as letters to and from Castro prove their friendship, especially during crises (4 and 5 F). http://www.elsalvador.com/mwedh/nota/nota_opinion.asp?idCat=50839&idArt=9444407

          “Muchos años más tarde, en su exilio miamense, provocado por Hugo Chávez, Carlos Andrés Pérez me confesó que había sido tan ingenuo que llegó a pensar que Fidel Castro era su amigo. En sus palabras había un profundo desengaño. Me dijo, en abono de su inocencia, que cuando su segunda toma de posesión, en 1989, un millar de venezolanos ilustres habían firmado una carta saludando la presencia de Castro en Caracas. Casi todos estaban hoy en la oposición o en el exilio. Sufrían, sin saberlo, de BSS [Benevolente Simpatía Superficial].”

          • This was an excellent post by CAM, though I am not sure if it was warranted to be that diplomatic. After all, if I were Cuban my opinion of these people would be harsher. The key word here is of course SUPERFICIAL, a trait well expressed by most Venezuelans.

        • It is an interesting point, and they were products of the times, just as the “other 1%” in the US- not writers and intellectuals but the business elite- were lending material aid and support to Hitler and Franco. Either way, that observation from Orwell rings true.

    • Unfortunately, the Latin American societal admiration of Fidel Castro was a visceral collective insanity that blinded even the clearest of thinkers. There were very few who were immune to his seductions. To condemn Zapata for this is to condemn all of Latin American society for the last 50 years. And all of Latin America has already been paying the price for that mindless adoration with decades of retarded growth.

      • The same country that gave us the never ending Telenovelas gave us the Castro Cult , so beloved of the latin american masses , both share that element of bathos , of kitsch pomposity , that taste for staging life as an epic struggle between the heroic saintly and victimized poor and the absolutely wicked and loathful succesful , and powerful , that opera bufa quality of the narrative , the endless speeches reeking of theatrical defiance and hoary voiced indignation . Its all so corny and yet even today it draws people to admire Castro for his defiance of mean old Uncle Sam and the forces of Capitalism . Thats what gives Latin American govt forums their anti american tone , anything that smacks of attacking the US govt and companies makes people burst with proud self righteous wrath …….I suspect that there is an element of envy and resentment in that loathing , the poor relative or student who cant stand the conceited self sattisfaction of the more fortunate and succesful relative or fellow student . Grandly Confronting a demonized avatar of those we envy is one of the few emotional thrills left to historys losers and failures !!

          • Inferiority complex, and no it doesn’t mask reality; latin america reality is for all in plain view to see, pero no hay peor ciego que el que no quiere ver.

        • Wow! That was an impressively poetic take-down. Well said.

          I have often thought that some of the Latin American predilection for this sort of misdirected resentment can be found in Cervantes’ “Don Quixote”. There is a tendency to admire good and noble intentions over good and positive results. This is the “Romanticism” that you spoke of in a previous post.

        • Years ago I went to a Spanish language cinema in Houston, which was playing a Mexican movie that so strongly stereotyped the Bad Yanqui versus Good Mexican that I wrote off Mexican movies for years. It was a really bad move- Soviet propaganda couldn’t have been less objective. I later discovered that Mexico did produce some good movies, such as Cantinflas’s comedies.

          My best introduction to the subject of Latin America defining itself against the US came from Carlos Rangel, the esteemed Venezuelan writer and journalist. I bought Rangel’s Del buen salvaje al buen revolucionario in Anaco. One of the best books I have ever read. In English translation, the book is titled The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. It’s not just movies that have their titles changed in translation!

          I still have my dog-eared, yellow paper copy, in the Revolucionario version. Rangel discusses José Enrique Rodó’s Ariel, written at the beginning of the 20th century, which defines the cultivated Latino versus the uncultivated Yanqui.

    • J,

      we are talking about art and artistic talent. Not about political purity.

      In that sense, as an artist, Zapata was brilliant.

      Many great artists took politically compromised positions and many recanted, while others persisted in spite of common sense, like humans do sometimes.

      Vargas Llosa has been a communist, a Castrista, a Thatcherite and a neo-con; i.e he has been wrong about politics most of his life. He is also the finest prose writer in Spanish right now.

      Pablo Neruda was a Stalinist, as were Picasso and Brecht.

      Borges famously said Chile deserved Pinochet.

      And so on. They were not as intelligent as you, who at age 30 (if not younger) knew everything. I expect you also realised, at a young age, that you are a bit of an arsehole, with an unjustifiably high regard of your own person.

      • First of all, I have not insulted anyone here. That you insult me in itself disqualifies yourself and your post. Second, you really do need to learn how to read. I know that for you it might be challenging, but keep trying, you may learn some. Third, I have not said that I am more intelligent than anyone (again, learn how to read, please). I only remarked that by age 30, I already new who Fidel Castro was and what the Cuban regime was doing to its people. There was ample objective literature about those topics, but of course, one needs to know how to read. And regarding political animals, yes all these gentlemen you mention did not have precisely trustworthy political ideas. For that reason, I don’t give a fig about Vargas Llosa. Again, (have someone read and explain this to you if you don’t understand), I am not criticizing their main line of work, one to which most preferably they should have stick to and leave politics to politicians, like say Sir Winston Churchill. Now, this giant really did have an unsurpassed clarity of mind!

        • J,

          I am sorry you take my comment as an insult, my intention was to reveal something to you that is obvious to people who read what you write.

          Winston Churchill won a Nobel prize for literature and was a journalist before he entered politics. So there you go, a politician can be a writer and vice versa, as Vaclav Havel and Andre Malraux.

          Churchill also was at times a racist, a class warrior and opposed to the NHS… again, even great people can be wrong.

          Anyway, I see you published the whole list of signatories to an unimportant text of decades ago.

          isn’t that a bit maniacal? What does this list say about anything?

          • Again, I am very pessimistic about your reading and comprehension abilities. Read your last paragraph to find your foul language. As for the list, have someone read this post and explain to you that I was challenged to present it, even though it is a very easy find in the net. Anyway, it is good that people are aware of it and its signatories live in shame for lending their support to one of the worst criminals of the last century, even though, most of them are inconsequential beings.

          • I would have expected a more substantial reply, instead of a personal attack. Oh well, I guess this is all you are capable of…

  5. No doubt having native talent to begin with, Zapata nonetheless sought to learn the techniques of the alpha among Latam artists — Rivera and Orozco. No wonder he was a cut above most political cartoonists.

  6. Zapata is the greatest purely Venezuelan visual artist of the last decades, or at least since Jesus Soto’s passing.

    Cruz Diez is still alive and productive, but he is as French as he is Venezuelan.

    He had the ill luck of having been born in Venezuela. Had he been, say, American, he would be among the most recognised artists in the world.

    Soto and Cruz Diez are known worldwide, of course. but they emigrated and developed their careers in Paris.

    For me, as an artist, he is near George Grosz and Max Ernst, but happier.

    The problem is: who is next? there is no new generation to take the torch. Sure, there are caricaturists, but they are no artists.

    One thing I deeply admire on Zapata’s work is the language he gave to his drawings: always dignified, never a grammatical error, ever on the spot. He was also a great prosist.

    Like Reverón he will remain a private joy or Venezuelans. An underestimated talent known only to us (although Reverón has got some recognition lately in the US)

    • although Reverón has got some recognition lately in the US
      suspect on account of the sale of “cuadros” (my brother tells me he’s seen this on the Internet) by those in need of USD, given the decomposition of the productive machinery in Vzla.

      • Reveron’s work was the object of a monographic at MoMA in 2007. That is quite a recognition, but not nearly enough.

        For me Reveron is the greatest visual artist in the history of our country. A genius, a master of light. Artist is the person who lives to create, and nothing else.

        • I didn’t know about the MoMA exhibit in ’07. Remember seeing one in el Museo de Bellas Artes, oh must have been in the early or mid-90’s. Extraordinary! Such an original!

    • Wow, the things that one reads in the net! Now, I learn that there are pure and impure Venezuelan artists. Like artistry is purely local and never has external influences. So, Soto and Cruz Diez, perhaps the greatest Venezuelan plastic artists ever are not pure enough Venezuelan artists because they are also French?

      • J,

        opinions are like arseholes, everybody has one.

        I do think that Soto and Cruz Diez are more international, more universal, than Reveron and Zapata, even if all of them lived abroad at some point.

        The greatest of them was Reveron, because he lived within his work.

        Diego Rivera’s art after his return is Mexican. Juan Rulfo is purely Mexican.

        Proust could only happen in France but I think Joyce would have done the same anywhere.

        Faulkner and Hemingway wrote about America and the Americans as opposed to the rest of the Western world. TS Eliot, being American by birth, is a British poet.

        And all these people were great artists.

        • More to the point: because of the nature of his work, commenting his immediate reality, Zapata had to be purely Venezuelan. He had to feel intimately connected to the subject of his caricatures.

          • Who defines these things?

            I am not a fan of Zapata because I find political cartoons generally boring illustrations of the obvious…and I could care less about ethnicity.

            So much mediocre punditry in the art world as well as the political ; Art is a matter of taste, and is never wrong or right.I like Rachmaninoff,maybe you don’t …who cares ? I certainly do not want to judge these things.

            Maybe the fact that I don’t like Zapata will rile a few up.That’s their bad.Uniformity of opinion seems to be the underlying downfall of punditry…..My opinion of course.

          • De gustibus non est disputandum.

            Listen,you have to have a conversation, isn’t it? otherwise, what do you want to talk about? art is as good as other subject.

  7. I’m not sure I understand why there is such a hard distinction in your post between what appears to be High Art and cartoonists. Overall tone appears to suggest that Zapata, although probably the most influential and surely one of the best visual artists of our times, was ‘merely’ a cartoonist – correct me if I have read the wrong tone here, but it feels to me as if the general sensation is ‘he was such a great cartoonist he was almost a great artist’.

    He was a great artist. Without a doubt. He made most of his art in the form of political cartoons and commentary, but the form of visual expression he chose should not come as a detriment to his position, his skill or the influence he had (which, thanks to his career as political cartoonist, is huge).

    Regarding the arts in general in Venezuela, it is not that they don’t happen. We have artists – writers, filmmakers, painters, illustrators, designers, cartoonists, tattooists, musicians, singers, installation artists, playwrights and so on. But I believe one important problem is the difficulty of making any kind of living as an artist in Venezuela. A lot of it ends up being down to commercial work, and anybody who has ever worked commercially in Venezuela (in advertising, for example), at least within the last 10 or so years, knows it is almost impossible to innovate within that sphere. They want ‘tried and tested’, which usually means ‘rip off something foreign’. There are other issues of course – respect and support are two that come to mind, in that there is very little of either for budding artists in Venezuela. You cannot expect great artistry to simply develop there out of nowhere without support, respect, investment or viable platforms. And that is not new, is it surprising to anyone that Cruz Diez, Soto, Otero and Zapata all left Venezuela in order to further their artistic development?

    • Try to be an engineer in Venezuela. Apart from the times of oil hikes, it is better to be a soap opera actor than an engineer…or a researcher in natural sciences.

      • This isn’t a competition, and the post was about artists in Venezuela. I have never been (nor will I ever be) an engineer in Venezuela so I cannot speak about that specific area, but making it as a soap opera actor in Venezuela is not exactly straightforward and easy, either.

        • It is not about a competition. It is about putting things in perspective.
          You can be X, you can be Y, but if you talk about X or Y and talk about how bad X or Y has it in a certain society is, you need to think, at least for a moment, whether the situation is any different from the rest of the population or from any group with more or less same years of training/education.
          It is what makes people see beyond their navels.

          • I shall amend my point to your satisfaction then: “making a living doing anything in Venezuela today is hard. Hardship is hard.”

  8. We can all celebrate the biting wit and genial humour of Zapata caricatures, How he could make us laugh (and laugh hard) at the foibles of the powerful and pompous with a few lines of his pen and a very short sentence. In doing so he cunningly and charmingly seduced us into sharing his extraordinarily rich and satirical view of our mishapen Venezuelan world, Who can forget all those characters his cartoons brough to life : Coromotico , the incredibly emaciated juan bimba, the wisened heavily draped chorus of old ladies, the gaudily uniformed men with a boot for a head , He did what great artists did , he created a world peopled by unforgettable characters born of his imagination.

    On the subject of his earlier political views , I think we must understand that during the first part of his life he was a man of his times , a bit innocent in judging the early Castro which for a time caught the illusions of the rosy lensed left wig progressives . It takes a capacity for mature rectification to outgrow those early illusions and start seeing the world for what it is . The important thing is that he made the jump and became a true Champion of democratic ideals and a fierce opponent of the Chavez regime .

    I cant judge his work as a painter , people more knowledgeable than myself have commented on the depth and scale of his plastic talents . What I do know is that his was a very artistic temperament ,one which dared defy all limits. He will be sorely missed.!!

  9. Reveron’s name is a childhood memory for me , my parents were close friends of people who were very very close to Reveron , when I visited their home all walls were covered top to bottom with his paintings and drawings , some on cardboard , some were portraits of their daughter my childhood play mate . They seemed very commonplace to my infantile eyes . I remember as I child going with my mother to visit his beachside ‘castle’ and talking to his widow, a very humble and affable fat little lady. I was mesmerized by the dolls and other artifacts he manufactured and left all around the place , it delighted me as a child to see those things being reproduced so primitively. it was a childs playground . Then my parent took me to an exhibition of his works, my very first , I was impressed by all the drawings and paintings without understanding very much of anything . I remember the picture of a reclining nude lady all coloured in blue . When I returned home I started to draw simple things like mad on cardboard and paper and placed them in rows just like the exhibition I had seen and then I paraded my parents in front of them . Then I forgot all about it and it was many years later that I connected the name Reveron with that of the artistic giant . Now the rare times I can see one his paintings I do so with reverence and awe. Weird how in life our perspectives change so much !!

    • Thanks for that Bill Blass…great memoires.My daughter’s godfather lived near him many many years back and they used to meet on the beach.

      I remember the ” Castle ” , though I found it very weird ; yet I love it when people dare to create a unique life for themselves as he did.

      • Reveron would sell his latest works in Macuto to the visiting Caracas patrons for cents, to make ends meet for the next week.

        I grew up hearing stories from my grand parents who knew him, but never had a chance to stop by his “castle”.

        After the 99 floods, the area of the quince letras where his atelier/ home was located was the object of pillaging … I wonder if any his works survived that saqueo!

        Any one knows the status of the museum/ and its collection.?

  10. “We all enjoy Federico Vegas and Suniaga, but these are not universal authors – at least not yet. And while we may all admire a few movie directors, architects, musicians or painters, they are all undiscovered gems, niche players. The artistic genesis spurred by the revolution’s antics remains underwhelming.”

    How convenient a conclusion, isn’t it? Venezuela has always produced great artists, not least through its darkest times. To say that there are no universal authors as the result of the Revolution is just a sad simplification of a more complex reality. There have been worldwide-known writers that have achieved success over the past few years, Eugenio Montejo and Rafael Cadenas standing out from a broader list of names your post would do well to go through. It would also do well not letting arrogance step over the work of brilliant people like Vegas and Suniaga themselves, or Padrón, Barrera, Socorro, Hernández and countless others writing for El Nacional for the sake of mere respect.

    “He spurred our national conscience through that rare Venezuelan trait – hard work.” – Why do you despise Venezuelans so much?

  11. I found this approach to Zapata’s death upsetting. You pretend to flatter him, maybe even you think you are doing an homage, but this is not that in the least. The disdain and lack of awareness you show about art, the dismissive tone of your article, fails wide of its mark.

    First you doubt that cartoons are high art – have you not looked around to see how wrong this is? Do you even know what art truly is? Take Tove Jansson’s work on WWII, for example. Take Zapata’s fifty years to account. Art provokes, influences, moves, reaches – what more so than a cartoon that lingers, complicating in a phrase and a ‘simple’ drawings a nation’s zeitgeist. None of those ‘simple’ drawings – although you say you know how difficult they are yet still call them simple – are anything less than high art. Great art, no matter what shape, yeah, even cartoons, inspires great art. Edo, Rayma are more than just cartoonist on their own.This is the muralist who made Caracas and her horrible traffic much more bearable, he wasn’t only a cartoonist and even that would have already been enough.

    Second, you dismiss the artistic output since the Revolution, when it has been constantly redefining itself to try and tackle the complications of Venezuelan society with the added difficulty that is making sense of a thing like the Bolivarian Revolution. You dismiss the output so easily, yet artists sprout and achieve all throughout this period. Is that all you have to say about that?

    Third, perhaps the worst part, is your tone. Zapata deserves more than you asking him to take a bow at the ‘ripe old age’. Zapata created a school, he managed to sustain a clever, remarkable, tender and insightful look into our reality throughout his work.

    If you don’t know about art, don’t talk about art. He was more than just the super popular cartoonist you portray, and you clearly haven’t been able to see it, despite your: THE greatest artist. Catchy phrases do not an homage make.

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