Annals of Revolutionary Dignity

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cola barqui
Barquisimeto shoppers show off the latest chavista technology for managing lines to buy impossible-to-find cornmeal for arepas.

1 COMMENT

  1. Now this is the scariest thing I’ve ever seen. I mean, I had only seen it before in wrinkled old arms telling stories of concentration camps and ghettos during WWII. I guess even now we’re starting to look more and more like that kind of state.

    “La tarjeta de racionamiento cubana” not withstanding would have been more dignifying.

  2. Somehow, I think this will be left off the itinerary of the BoliCircle group from New York who will be doing the Food Sovereignity tour in August.

    • It’s not just the indignity of being branded for an arepa, it’s also the ladilla existencial of knowing that there are FOURHUNDRED AND SIXTY PEOPLE ahead of you in line…

      • might be useful to add to your cutline the following:
        “…for managing lines to buy an impossible-to-find daily staple: cornmeal for arepas.”

      • Fair enough, but also imagine the sublime joy knowing you aren’t #920. It isn’t the front of the line, but hopefully, it isn’t the back of the line.

        I’ve never understood the fixation and tolerance of lines in Venezuela. Its almost Sovietesque.

      • It certainly is a ladilla existencial to live in an underdeveloped country that has not been able to produce enough food to feed itself since the 1930s. The fun fact that Toro loves to ignore is that Venezuelans today consume 50 percent more food PER CAPITA than they did in 1998. And if the opposition were in power they would massively devalue the currency (as both Toro and JC openly support), making food imports drastically more expensive and thereby decreasing the food consumption of average Venezuelans.

        The unfortunate choice for average Venezuelans (not Montreal-based spoiled brats) right now is whether they would rather deal with shortages but eat relatively well, or if they’d prefer to eat 50 percent less calories, but have the shelves full of food they can’t afford. Which ladilla existencial is worse?

        • Entonces, GAC imbécil, dinos otra vez en qué pais vives? Again, in which country do you live? Can you say that louder, so that the rest of us can hear?

          • I live in Venezuela. In the future, if you can’t actually respond to anything I said, then you should just not respond at all. You make it so obvious that you have no argument and you end up looking like a complete idiot.

        • Get a clue, why only a 50% increase in food consumption when there’s been a 500% increase in income from oil? And if the sellers of the food are so greedy, why haven’t they been able to increase the supply at the same rate as the demand?

          • Because it doesn’t fit with the narrative, of course. Every so often, he has valid and/or insightful statements about some things, but there’s never been an explanation as to why, if the markets are so lucrative, remain packed with scarcity if little else, when there is a fortune to be made by speculators and hoarders.

            I do not buy the increase in domestic production being topped by consumption. The egg index indicates the truth of things, as it generally does in countries like Venezuela: That production hasn’t increased all that much, even as demand has expanded.

  3. The scary thing about these proliferating long queues is how they can in future turn to food riots , people dont realize it but if you have masses of people constantly subjected to extreme frustrations on an every day basis for which they blame some political figure heads which are incesantly showering threats and insults on them , depriving them of all sorts of things they had over the years become accostumed to , they are going to be in a very foul mood next time some staple goes missing . If they are isolated then maybe nothing will happen , but if they all bunched together in one same place , the atmosphere can turn ugly and ultimately violent . There is now in Venezuela a growing cloud of combustible anger floating in the air thats almost palpable . Maduro accuses the opposition leaders to be instigating people to sectarian violence but forgets how he himself and the situation theyve created with their mismanagement and abuses is instigating peoples repressed anger and indignation , specially the always offensive language used to offend and insult anyone not counted among their partisans . If things are going to get worse , then some day people in a long queue are going to go bezerk and stage a violent protest . Lets hope it never happens!!

  4. I hate to scare you guys but, isn’t that kinda the same thing they’re doing in Pyongyang at the moment?

  5. What’s sad isn’t that some dude picks your arm, brands it, and then tells you to go wait in an abnormal line for 3 hours. What’s sad is that you give the guy the arm, and go wait.

  6. Just as well that it’s confined to the arm: if extended to another member, it’d be “an arm and a leg”. Ahem.

  7. I can only hope that those that voted Maduro like being humiliated. I have heard they used broomsticks to keep the cattle, er… customers in Mercal at bay. Let’s hope somebody is reminding these happy customers that this did not use to happen during the “Fourth”.

  8. Chavez’s Propaganda:

    Harina pan en miami.. que tal??? a 2,48 $ hecha en venezuela con maiz venezolano y mano de obra venezolana… 2,48 $ aprox. 15,60 bs. y al venezolano se la quieren vender en 25 bs y mas!!!! O.O entonces quienes son los jodedores??? los empresarios burgueses, CAPITALISTAS, claro que les va a estar importando a ellos que va a come el pueblo???? Se están metiendo con nuestra AREPA de cada día.. abre los ojos!!! y todo con tal de mal poner al gobiernooo… NO TE DEJES ENGAÑAR…

    • Unbelievable, that’s what some politician from the oppo should do what loloferoz said and make a statement and spread it like the gospel saying that things like this NEVER happen until Santo Chavez came…. very important, hope they are reading this… those little details turn people to the light

    • Oh my, what a huge stockpile, at that rate it’s enough to last a day in Caracas if each person gets a quarter pound per day… oh wait, that’s not very much at all. Aren’t Chavista’s capable of basic, basic math?

      When they find a warehouse with ten thousand tons of corn flower, then I’ll believe something fishy is going on.

  9. Wife buys her arepa stuff through Amazon.
    After 18 years I’m quite partial to an arepa with camerones and avocado.

    And to be able to buy haring pan cheaper in the US than in Venezuela is enough to shock the foundations of Venezuelan society!

    • but note that chavistas without brain power are blaming the “burguesitos” for the high price of what is essentially a Venezuelan commodity, without considering the 14-year governmental structures that add to that shelf price.

  10. Put aside the economics of this, isn’t it an affront on human dignity? Under savage capitalism there are no people, just numbers, random consumers, but at least the number isn’t tatooed on your arm like it is in the Bolivarian Republic.

    • Claro que si, totalmente indigno, pero a quien mas se le puede ocurrir este tipo de cosas! Y la gente no se da cuenta? Estan totalmente adoctrinados a ser tratados como animales asi es, un abuso

    • Tatoo is a bit extremist. The stuff will wash off the arm but I get your point. And it is so degrading. By the way, I support Maduros current oil for food tour. Its harder to steal food than dollars.

      • Not necessarily, when the food comes: near expiration date/over-priced/shipped to Cuba for trans-shipment to Venezuela/if at all….

    • The latest affront to human dignity: last weekend, in a small town outside Caracas, 2 Mercal trucks with badly-needed below-cost food for the poor, were prohibited from selling and sent back to Caracas by the local Chavista Jefe Civil, because the town had voted slightly in favor of Capriles on 4/14!(=cutting off your nose to spite your face).

  11. People having to scrounge frenzily for missing foods or medicines is demeaning , being marked in the arm to get a few bags of harina pan is just the visible sign of that larger offense to peoples dignity . But there is another way in which people are offended in their dignity and that is the way people are branded with the most offensive epithets by Government bigwigs just because they hold to a different political view than the regime . To live in Venezuela is to live under a constant attack to ones dignity!! and not to be able to do anything inmmediately meaningful about it is insufferable !! I dont think there is another country in the world where people have to live through such constant vilifications of ones standing as a human being .

    • Bill, think that one through. One example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17kDSc8viaY
      I hear people on this very comments section constantly dehumanize chavistas. I understand the idea that lo que es igual no es trampa (what’s the same ain’t cheating), but it is a mistake to think that getting dehumanized is somehow partuicular to our situation, or that chavismo is somehow globally abnormal, or that we are somehow simply innocent victims.

      When we stop acting like children accusing each other, and start seeing the adult complexity in the issues that face us, the sooner our children can drop the guns and play in peace.

      • Smart comment Faust !! cant say I disagree that dehumanization of a rival is a human universal , that most people perversely seem to enjoy it , gives them an emotional-narcicistic kick . ‘If your are despicable to me its because Im morally or intellectually superior to you , by loathing you I thus assert my own superb superiority’ . That why people love confrontations , specially when they are couched in histrionic and bombastic terms . The thing which is special about Venezuela is that the Regime’s relentless discourse against its rivals is so flagrantly, shamelessly and exhorbitantly insulting and threatening, so false manipulative and hypochritical that it exceeds any limits we know of in the civilized world . Of course people who must come under this constant barrage of attacks and insults would be inhumanly insensitive if they just take it sitting down, their instincts compell them to respond in kind and hence the retributive denumanizing of Chavistas sometimes seen in this blog and in other places : if you see others systematically tear your dignity down , your response cannot be lovey dovey ‘I am so goody goody that I will maintain a stance of saintly tolerance’ , you want to strike back at those that insult you so. The worse thing is that you see the regime haughtily commit all kind of abuses invoking the most farsical and pretentious pretexts and you cant do anything about it , your angry and yet you just have to impotently bear it . this impotent rage makes you even angrier . I also agree with you that there is a lot of inmmaturity in the way that some people in the opposition oversimplify the complexity of the factors that have brought Venezuela to its current situation , but I dont see anyone on the other hand even half willing to recognize those complexities rather than delude themselves with the childish myths which they use to colour their megalomaniacal
        prejudices.

        • Great comment. Chavez knew how to couch everything in epic terms at times, to make his followers fill like they were in some sacred battle. It was so over the top, and even more so now in its riduculousness, isn’t there some point when it just loses value?

  12. We don’t have Harina Pan, We don’t have mayonnaise, We don’t have electricity, but WE HAVE FATHERLAND

    Ok… :S

  13. Asdrubal , We welcome your patriotism but please note that in normal logic having access to ordinary services and food staples does not exclude Patriotism , there are lot of countries which manage to have both . There is no reason why Venezuela should be the exception except for the kind of ineptness which characterizes our rulers !! Viva Venezuela!!

  14. Yes, putting numbers on people’s arms so that they can receive government subsidized food is soooo terrifying!! Its almost like Nazi concentration camps…. I mean, if you just switch around gas chambers for cheap food then it’s virtually identical!

    (p.s. this kind of thing is precisely why no one takes you seriously…)

    • JESUS MOSES, already, people! STOP responding to these idiots!!!! Sheesh…one would think that you’re giving them credibility, which they DO NOT deserve!

    • Are you shitting me here, GAC? Seriously? Fuck off, already. Of COURSE it’s almost like Nazi concentration camps, you idiot…

  15. I’m a Gringo visiting Venezuela for a month, but follow the events closely from the States. The schism that has erupted has put both sides into an emotional, defensive mode and has left little room for rational thought or discussion. While I’m here I’m trying to get a handle on the reasons for the accusations leveled at the government and hopefully get answers with some substance behind them rather than explosive emotional appeal and negativity. At the same time I’d like to find where the government is truly at fault and what can be done to correct the situations. Basically is there any common ground that can be found for rational discussion?
    The first questions I have are about the scarcity of food referred to in the article. From what I understand Polar is the main player in food production, handling, and distribution. If that is the case why is there so much blame being put on the government? Did anyone think to ask Polar why there is a food shortage for staples such as corn meal?

    • Hey Gringo, take a bus into the interior. Get away from your minders. Before you start trying to solve other peoples problems and calling them emotional and irrational, some humility is in order. And while you’re at it, pick of a copy of The Quiet American.

      • By the way, I follow events in the USA closely and a schism has erupted and both sides are in an emotional and defensive mode that has left little room for rational thought and discussion…I’d like to get some answers with some substance behind them rather than explosive emotional appeal and negativity….Basically is there any common ground that can be found for rational discussion?

        • As, well obviously, a pitiyanqui, I can answer that question: no.

          When you have a government full of idiots, little actually gets accomplished when it is far more expedient to really on incendiary rhetoric and emotional manipulation.

          The USA won’t work until pretty much every jackwad gets voted out and they start with a clean slate. And I say that knowing some of those jackwads personally. *sigh*

          Similar, no? I find it even more aggravating that some of the worst are the diehard rojo rojitos from both countries.

      • Canuck: This obviously is Tracy, typing from his jail cell with a gun at his head, trying to get a “Get Out Of Jail” card….

        • Which brings up a good point, Net.

          Gringo, make sure you buy a Che T-Shirt, and if you need a nice meal, show up at the Ministry of Poder Popular Whatever, say you are a very important revolutionary back home, and it will be pure lomito all the way brother. Don’t being doing any bona fide journalism unless you have some powerful friends and a good insurance policy…

    • There is a constraint in supply and it has nothing to do with Polar, or any other food importer/producer.

      A large part of the problem IS the government. Why? Price ceilings. If you haven’t had an econ class or are fuzzy on the concept, look here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_ceiling

      When you have extended periods of price controls, as expectations of prices resuming a normal market level decline, hoarding is no longer feasible because you are trapped selling at a loss. Instead, what do you do? Producers leave the markets.

      Another part? Well, a huge amount of food is now imported into Venezuela. Despite what you might be told, it is far more than in recent memory. Of course, importing faces constraints due to currency controls and a currency peg which is solely in the government’s purlieu, as they have access to all the petrol dollars and they determine the exchange rate which makes remittances from exports of other goods non-existent due to their uncompetitiveness. The real and nominal dollar prices for goods have been separated by quite a gap for years (5 years ago, it was 150% of nominal, now it is something like 400%). A recent example: eggs are 3 bolis each in Merida, or roughly $.50 per at the official rate, while $.12 per at the parallel rate. This is great if you are a gringo packing dollars, but sucks if you are trapped being paid in bolis and buying in bolis.

      Factor in inflation’s effect on costs of production (hey, what harm can 30%/year do…year after year after year when you can only sell at a fixed rate?), rotting infrastructure which makes logistical movements difficult, a labyrinthine bureaucracy for moving stuff around and a distinct lack of private DFI, and you have a witch’s brew of trying to supply food or run any sort of business enterprise.

      Bear in mind, the Venezuelan people have been facing this problem for years, but as the currency struggles, it is becoming far worse. For reference: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4599260.stm and bear in mind, this is when they thought price controls might not be more or less permanent (7 years ago). I know at least two coffee producers who have moved on, more or less. I’m sure others on here know more.

      Ask Polar all you want. But, at the end of the day, the government is at the root of it. The real question you should be pondering is that in a country with a government that has expropriated thousands of businesses, why have they left Polar alone when they consistently blame Polar? And the follow up to that should be, “What happens when the flow of polarcitas dries up?”

        • That’s because at this stage, that’s the only three things left. You could argue oil should be included, but really, petroleum is now the foundation of socialism.

          • Canucklehead,
            Didn’t mean to sound like I could solve anyone’s problems. I certainly don’t have that kind of power. I’m trying to understand why people are so emotional and irrational – that applies to both sides of the fence and in both countries. You’re certainly right in that what I wrote can be likened to what’s happening in the US as well. Isn’t this what generally happens when two sides dig in their heels and try to prove themselves right and the other side wrong? Each side finds like minded cohorts so they can pat each other on the back and reinforce their entrenched beliefs. All the more reason to search for understanding from the other side. Are we that different that we can’t see each other’s point of view and is the end game really that different? Are we not all aiming for the same outcome or am I mistaken there? No one should be deprived of food, shelter, education, or medical care and should be able to live in a safe environment. I hope neither side would deny any of that. So how do we take care of each other and see that those basic needs are met?

            pitiyanqui’s summation was right that in the US it is a hopeless situation which is at a stalemate. But I don’t think wiping the slate clean and getting rid of the whole bunch would solve anything since the government is at the mercy of corporate interests and lobbyists no matter who is in power. In essence there’s not much difference between Democrats and Republicans. It’s like what AD and Copei used to be. A lot of bluster, but two sides of the same coin.

            pitiiyanqui’s response to the scarcity problem was more like what I was hoping to elicit. It gives a viewpoint of what is causing the scarcity (e.g. price controls and inflation) and some documentation to back up those claims. The government on the other hand claims economic sabotage and subversive tactics used by the private sector to create destabilization with the flames being fueled by US support. Their explanation can also be backed up with statistics and economic theory (no need to go into it here since we get into the same “One is right and the other is wrong” scenario). Hello! Maybe there’s some truth to both sides. I understand there are plans for talks to be held soon between the government and the private food sector. There may be some agreement and a way to move forward and keep the shelves full of affordable food without feelings of exploitation of either side.

            The one big difference I see between Venezuela and the US is that in Venezuela there may hopefully be a dialog between proponents of two opposing points of view and ideologies. That’s been lost in the US. There are no viable opposing points of view now, just variations on the same themes. In the past when there were truly opposing viewpoints, it usually ended in violence or suppression and in the extreme case a civil war, as is happening in other parts of the world now. I hope the hostilities felt by either side in Venezuela don’t continue to let emotions and irrationality prevail. It can spiral out of control and result in consequences I wouldn’t want to contemplate.

          • “The government… claims economic sabotage and subversive tactics used by the private sector to create destabilization with the flames being fueled by U. S. support…can also be backed up by statistics and economic theory…” The new “let’s be fair on both sides Troll dialogue quicksand” approach, awaiting the uncautious to be sucked in (probably a new approach by the GAC doppelganger “Gringo en Venezuela”.

          • I actually think the situation in the USA is only very superficially comparable, so I’ve not made my point clear. For example, what you don’t have in the USA is a complete breakdown in institutions. There is still habeus corpus. There is still a robust legal system, and there is still, relative to Venezuela, a low level of corruption. The influence of money in politics is a big problem in the states. But it is not a problem on the scale or of the nature that you see in Venezuela.

            The little guy can still win in the USA. The odds are stacked against him but he (or she) can still win. In Venezuela, the little guy is invisible and powerless.

            My point was more along the lines that Maiquetia airport is full of well-intentioned foreigners going down there to figure things out. They are attracted by the possibility that there is a government in place that has done something new, that has broken the endless cycle of inequality that plagues Latin America, that is marching in a new direction and has the resources at its disposal to carry through with the plan. These are usually folks who would better spend their time addressing the problems in their own backyards because in Venezuela, they are easily manipulated, and without the day to day experience of living there, they easily miss what is actually ‘beyond the cliches’.

            Like you perhaps, these people see more hope of effecting change in a far away third world country not because there is more hope or their skills are better suited over there than at home, but because it is far away, the information is incomplete when observed from a distance, and to put your nose to the gindstone to effect change in the USA is hard slogging, full of compromises and lacks the the romantic air of a ‘revolution’.

            Let me tell you: not much time will pass and that romantic air of revolution smells, for any thoughtful observer, like rot. You may consider that an irrational and emotional observation now. Good luck on your mission.

          • Actually I’m not a just a revolutionary loving foreigner on a mission in a faraway third world country. I’ve been married to a Venezuelan for 30 years. We lived here for 7 years in the ‘80s, have two children who were born here, and we return on an almost yearly basis to visit family and friends. In the near future we plan to spend more, if not all, of our time here rather than in the States. That’s why I feel justified in trying to take part in what’s happening now or at least get a better understanding of what’s going on. I can try to address problems in my “own backyard” as you say, but bringing about change in the US is a far more formidable task, as you pointed out.

            To say that the corruption in the US is at a low level relative to Venezuela is a misconception I think. There are few if any politicians who are not beholding to corporate interests and lobbying powers. In fact the influence of big money is so ingrained and taken for granted in the political system and the media that it’s not even looked upon as corruption – just business as usual. In fact how much bigger can corruption get than it is in the States. The fact that the Supreme Court declared corporations as having the rights of individuals is one of the more ludicrous rulings I’ve ever heard of. Recently the NRA gun lobby prevented any measure of gun control passing, this despite several occurrences of multiple murders by disturbed individuals using assault weapons. These are only two blatant examples of the coercive powers of money in the legislative and judicial branches. But I don’t want to fall into a debate about which government is more corrupt. There is no denying that there is corruption in the government here. We’re in agreement there. It’s been rampant long before Chavez came to power. What to do about it? I don’t think the Chavistas want corruption any more than the opposition. In fact, they need to weed it out if they are to remain a strong political force as would any party in power. No matter who is in power they will have to deal with corruption.

            You stated that the little guy is invisible and powerless in Venezuela. Didn’t Chavez come from a very humble background? Maduro as well? I’ve heard that there is a great deal of grassroots participation in the government now. That people have an opportunity to take part in their local governments. These are the things I’d like to find out about. I understand that the little guy has had a lot more to say after Chavez came to power. Is this a misconception? Maybe in living here I will witness more negative aspects of the government, but what government can’t be criticized. As you pointed out, it takes some hard slogging to work toward constructive change, whether here or in the States, but it seems very possible here given the vibrant participation I’ve witnessed in the people here.

            Hope you don’t mind me putting in my two cents worth. I’m not just a Gringo temporarily passing through. I have roots here as well, and glad to be a part of it.

          • Revolutionary feigned innocence quiksand–as in, below:…how much bigger can corruption get than it is in the States?” Se cansa uno!!

          • Well Gringo, since you have roots and spent a good amount of time here, albeit in the 80’s, I can give you somethings to chew on.

            1) Corruption is 10 times worse than AD/COPEI on a good day. Back in 98, when Chavez won I told my wife “New Rats coming, leaner and hungrier”. Sadly, I was right.

            2) No one can argue that the poor do not have more “programs” to help them. But as you should be well aware if you spent 17 years here, they work “a la Venezolana” That is, only on Tuesday afternoons, if you “know” someone and making Kafka look like a paragon of normalcy. As is typical with these programs, they are a sop. They are the “hand out fish, not teach to fish” variety. Now that the money is running out, we will be left with people that expect a handout and when it is not forthcoming will certainly put the bill at the doorstep of this government.

            3) Take housing as an example. This government, after one TRILLION dollars, provides low cost housing, built by foreigners instead of by locals, that falls apart months later, has deficient sewers, cracked concrete, door jambs that, well, jam and foundations that crumble. Not only that, but with average costs that should give each person a 4 bedroom quinta in El Cafetal, but leaves them with a cinder block in El Tuy.

            4) This one is short: “Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances”. Yeah right.

            You ask why cannot the sides “come together” and sing Kumbaya for the benefit of the people? It takes a dialog, and these “revolutionaries” are all about dictating and not dialoguing. They have purposely chosen to import rather than produce nationally because they wish to strangle opposition finances and they also want to control the people by keeping access to “the spigot” in their hands.

            They prefer to give the money to outsiders who will not participate in the local economy rather than spread the wealth to make the economy sing.

            You were here in the 80’s? You must remember how frustrated people were with AD/Copei. How many wished Perez Jimenez came back to “put order back into it”.

            Well, some guy did come, had all the power to do anything he wanted, and chose to keep a bunch of incompetent corrupt cronies rotating through all, what is it now, 37 or so Ministries?, with the disastrous results we now observe.

            And not content with this, they keep the music going by violating the constitution in naming Maduro “President in Charge” then “Candidate”, in what is clearly a coup d’ etat without guns. Maduro loses about 1 million votes, “wins” by 1.4% and refuses a re-count that counts.

            And you ask where is the dialogue? SCREW DIALOGUE! That is not going to solve ANYTHING! There is, and always was a monologue from one side only.

            We have impugned the elections because we are going to show how they have cheated, where they have cheated, when they have cheated and who has cheated. And then, when the Supreme Court rules against it as it invariably will, we’ll go International and prove it in front of impartial judges.

            And then, the fun will start.

            BTW: Don’t walk outside at night, don’t wear anything fancy and don’t open you mouth if you have an accent or you won’t last 3 months here.

    • You probably are familiar with the Lord of the Rings plot where people ( and some monsters too) are made crazy by their desire for a ring that symbolizes absolute power , imagine that Chavismo is made up of people who are obsessed with accumulating absolute power ( their ‘ring’) which in their minds means destroying any one who might challenge their acquisition and monopolization of absolute power, Their obsession with absolute power is not rational , the want it because they are intoxicated with the idea of having it and everything else is secondary or is seen only in so far as it helps them achieve this goal. In their mind having absolute power means that they must use violence and drastic force ( which use energizes and enthralls them) to destroy their rivals . they are not interested in coexistence with their rivals but in confronting them and destroying them into oblivion , they now hold all cards , have total control of political institutions , they are and feel and enjoy feeling all powerful and mighty and fierce. They dont think they need to forego the thuggish pleasure that the destruction of their rivals entails for them . If your religion is confrontation because confrontation makes you feel great and powerful there is no desire or need on their part to enter into any kind of compromise with those you really joyfully desire to destroy. This describes chavista mentality to a T. They ve made no secret that this is their program and preference , they ve been saying this for 14 years, they ve been practicing their creed every day for more than ten years . It is therefore an absolute sign of candour to think that you can apply to chavismo the motivations of ordinary polticial groups or parties in western democracies . its like asking iranian fundamentalist to enter into a compromise agreement with sionist opinion when their raison d etre is confronting and destroying a lovingly hated enemy. .

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